Leather includes leather, regenerated skin and leathers.
One.Sheep leather, cattle leather is the official standard name of the sheepskin and cattle skin required by the state!
Leather is made from cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, deer or some other animals. After leather processing, it is made of leather materials with various properties, strength, touch, color and pattern. It is a necessary material for modern leather products. Among them, cattle hide, sheepskin and pigskin are the three big skins of tannery materials. The dermis is divided into two types: the head layer and the two layer skin.
(1) the first layer of skin with the grain of cattle and sheep, pig, leather, natural scar and blood rib mark, and occasionally during the processing and utilization of cut belly parts is extremely low, the first layer of skin and imported cattle number mark. Full grain leather thickness and density of the pores can be to distinguish between what belongs to animal leather. There are many kinds of cowhide, such as milk cowhide, beef hide, herd of cattle hide, mother cowhide, male cowhide, uncastrated cowhide and castrated cowhide. In China there are yellow leather, water buffalo, yak skin and cattle yak leather etc..
Among them, the pores of the skin of the water cow are thicker and thinner; the Yellow cowhide is smaller and thicker than the pores of the water cowhide. The pores of the sheepskin are finer, denser and slightly inclined, mainly with two major categories of sheep skin and goat skin. Because the hair is a handful of 3~5 root distribution rules of pigskin, so it is easy to distinguish, commonly used artificial breeding pig, and wild boar skin, known as the South American wild boar, wild boar leather has obvious pores and grain characteristics of pigskin, due to its special structure of collagen fibers, can be processed into a very soft the garment leather or leather gloves, with very high value. In addition, an ostrich, crocodile, alligator, lizard, snake skin, skin, skin of bullfrog skin seawater (with shark skin, skin, skin, COD, COD eel skin, pearl skin), fresh water fish (grass carp, carp skin and scaly skin), hairy skin (Yin Hu fox skin blue fox, wolf, etc.), such as skin is easy to identify, skin, and could not be made of two layers of skin.
The skin of the first layer is directly processed from the raw skins of various animals, or the skins of cattle, pigs, horses and other animal skins with thicker cortex are sliced up and down to two layers. The top part of the tightly woven fiber is processed into various kinds of skin.
(2) the two layer skin is the two layer of loose fibrous tissue, which is made by spraying or coated with PVC and PU films by chemical materials.
Therefore, the effective method to distinguish between the head skin and the two layer is to observe the fiber density of the longitudinal section of the skin. The skin of the first layer is made up of dense and thin fibrous layer and slightly loose overlayer which is closely connected with it. It has good strength, elasticity and process plasticity. The two layer of leather is only a loose fibrous tissue layer. It can only be used for leather products after spraying chemical raw materials or polished. It maintains certain natural elasticity and process plasticity characteristics, but its strength is poor, and its thickness is the same as that of the first layer skin.
There used to be popular all kinds of leather production, leather processing are different, but the same distinction method.
Next we detail the various leather leather after processing:
1. Water dyed skin:
Refers to the use of cattle, sheep and pigs, horses, deer and other top layer leather dyeing various colors on the drum break loose, soft leather and various Polish processed.
2, open the edge of the pearl skin:
The film is also known as the leather, throwing into two halves along the spine, and to repair the wrinkle belly and limbs part of the first layer of skin or the two layer of the open edge of leather, in the processing of PVC film on the surface of fit all kinds of clean color, metal color, glossy pearl color, color or multicolor and double color.
The leather is made of two layers of skin.
Is the first layer of leather is poor, surface polishing treatment, remove scars and blood cord surface, with a variety of popular color leather pulp after spraying, pressed into grain or smooth skin effect.
5. Embossing skin:
General selection corrected or open edge bead used to press all kinds of figures or patterns and. For example, imitation crocodile, lizard, snake skin, ostrich skin wrinkles and ripple patterns, beautiful lines, bark embossed, imitation deer, as well as a variety of stripes, plaid, three-dimensional pattern or reflect the brand image of the creative pattern etc..
6, printing or pyrographic skin:
The material is the same as the embossed skin, but the processing technology is different. It is printed or ironed into the head or two layers of all kinds of patterns or patterns.
7. Abrasive skin:
The leather surface is polished, and the granular scar or rough fiber is worn to expose the neat and smooth leather fabric. Then it is dyed into the top or two layers of leather made of all kinds of popular colors.
8. Cashmere skin:
Also called Jing leather, is the leather surface shine into the fluffy, then dyed a variety of popular colors and the first layer of skin.
9. Laser skin:
It is also called the laser skin, citing the latest leather varieties that etch various pattern patterns on the surface of the leather.
Two. Regenerated skin:
After comminution of all kinds of animal's skin and dermis, it is made of chemical raw materials. The surface processing technique of leather leather, embossed leather repair, which is characterized by skin neat edge, high utilization rate, low price; but the skin is usually thicker, the strength is poor, only suitable for the production of cheap briefcase, luggage bags, golf and other products and price setting process of the belt, the longitudinal section of the fiber the organization is uniform and can recognize solidification effect of mixed fiber liquid materials.
Three. Artificial leather:
Also called leather or rubber, is a combination of PVC and PU and other man-made materials. It is in the textile or non-woven cloth base, by a variety of different formulations of PVC and PU foam or film processing, according to different strength, abrasion resistance, cold resistance, gloss and color and pattern processing requirements made with variety of colors, good waterproof performance, neat appearance, utilization rate the high price is relatively cheap and leather characteristics, but the vast majority of artificial leather, the leather handle and elasticity can not achieve the effect; the longitudinal section of it, we can see artificial fiber film fine bubbles, or the surface of the cloth and dry dry. It is a very popular kind of material that has been very popular in the early days. It is widely used to make various leather products, or part of the leather material. Its increasingly advanced production process is being widely used in the processing of two layers of skin.
Pay special attention to:
Nowadays, the leather like leather with the characteristics of leather has been produced, and its surface technology and fiber structure are almost the same as that of domestic leather.
What's the difference between the head layer of the skin of the water cow's skin, the two layers of the skin and the regenerated skin?
The skin of the head is a layer of the surface of the dermis, the skin of the head is relatively thin and the price is high, and the furniture made is comfortable and soft. The general head skin is more than 10 yuan per square foot. The two layer of skin is the lower layer of the dermis. The two - layer skin is cheaper and harder. It is also common on the market. The two layers of skin are generally 4-6 yuan and one square foot.
The difference between the head layer and the two layer is to observe the fiber density of the longitudinal section of the skin. The first layer skin is composed of dense thin fiber layer and slightly loose overlayer which is closely connected with it. The two layer of leather is only loose fiber organization layer, spraying chemical raw material or polishing.
When the skin is folded, the wrinkles disappear immediately. The wrinkles do not disappear and the skin is regenerated.
Dermis identification knowledge
1: identification of dermis
That touch the leather surface, such as a smooth, soft, plump and elastic feeling is dermis; and general synthetic leather surface astringent, rigid, soft and low.
The dermis leather has more clear fur and patterns. The yellow cattle skin has more symmetrical pores. The yak skin has coarse and sparse pores, and the goat skin has fish's scaly pores.
All leather has the odor of leather; and artificial leather has a strong irritating plastic smell.
A little fiber is torn off from the back of genuine leather and artificial leather. After burning, all the pungent odour is artificial leather, and the real leather is the one that sends out hair and doesn't knot hard.
2. Recognition of artificial leather and synthetic leather
With the above four basic methods of identification, it is obvious to compare the identification of artificial leather and synthetic leather. In addition, artificial leather and synthetic leather have the following characteristics:
1), with finger press leather surface, no obvious pore wrinkles, such as press after wrinkles, and will not obviously disappear.
2), the leather has no pores, which is an important feature of identifying the true and false leather.
3), cut the corner burning smell, but the hair burnt smell.
3, what is the difference between cattle leather, pig leather, horse leather and sheep leather
The types of leather are different, and their characteristics and uses are different. For example, cattle leather is thin and high strength, and is the most suitable for making leather shoes and leather products. Sheepskin leather is light, thin and soft, which is the ideal fabric for leather garments, and the permeability and permeability of pig leather is good.
The pores on the surface of the leather are round and large, and are leaner into the leather. The pores are arranged in three groups, and the leather faces a number of small triangular patterns.
Both the yellow cattle leather and the buffalo leather are known as cow leather, but there are some differences between the two. Cattle leather surface pores were round, straight into the leather, compact and uniform pores, irregular arrangement, like The sky was covered with stars. The pores of the buffalo leather are larger than the yellow cattle leather, and the pores are less than the yellow cattle leather, and the leathery is more relaxed than the yellow cattle leather.
The surface of the leather is also oval, slightly larger than the pores of the yellow cattle leather, and arranged in a more regular pattern.
Grain leather surface pores oblate, pores clear, several members of a group, arranged in fish scale.
The cow skin can be divided into 8 layers (the most can be divided into two layers). The outermost layer is the top layer skin, the best quality, the next is two skin, and its strength, elasticity and air permeability are not as good as the first layer skin. The car seat must choose the skin of the head. Now, a compound skin sold on the market is made up of two layers of leather, which is covered with a layer of glue film. The surface is exquisite. It looks very like the top layer leather. Some businesses pretend to be the first layer of leather, deceiving users, so we should pay attention to identify them.
From a professional point of view, identifying leather should be judged from the smell, specific gravity, light resistance, migration resistance, atomization, hot yellowing and friction resistance of automotive skin. Because most car owners do not have the expertise in this field, it is difficult to judge, and may be identified with the following simple methods.
1, volume method
The leather in the factory, on the back, will indicate the date of manufacture, the area of the leather factory and so on. Of course, the day of manufacturing
Identification method of leather, imitation leather.
1, finger method
Press the skin with your fingers, and there will be fine wrinkles on the surface. When the finger is raised, the wrinkle immediately disappears is the dermis. There are no wrinkles in synthetic leather and synthetic leather.
2. Water use method
Drop a bit of water on the skin and dry the watermarks. It feels like a sticky wet hand, and it's a real leather.
3, the method of perception
Positive skin material, carefully observed with eyes, skin pores, and artificial leather is not pores. Look at the reverse side of the skin, looking for parts without folding. If it is the base cloth, it must be artificial leather or synthetic leather.
Identification of dough, two skin repair and regeneration of skin
After folding the skin to relax, the wrinkles disappear immediately. The wrinkles do not disappear and the skin is regenerated.